Sunday, 26 August 2012

First shot disinformation - Part 2

A continuation of our look into false information concerning the first shot

Bogus first shot miss witnesses:
In order to support the first shot miss theory, lone gunman kooks often cite the statements by three witnesses. These witnesses are motorcycle officer James Chaney, reporter Mary Woodward, and secret service agent Glen Bennett. However, examination of their statements along with the photographic evidence, reveals that they do not support the first shot miss theory.

Let’s begin with James Chaney.
Chaney was the motorcycle Officer riding to the right rear of President Kennedy’s limousine - in the inboard position. Despite being the closet non-limousine witness to the assassination – he was never called to testify before the Warren Commission! Following the assassination, he was interviewed by Bill Lord from WFAA –TV. This is how he described the shooting:
“We had proceeded west on Elm Street at approximately 15-20 miles per hour. We heard the first shot. I thought it was a motorcycle backfiring and uh I looked back over to my left and also President Kennedy looked back over his left shoulder. Then, the, uh, second shot came, well, then I looked back just in time to see the President struck in the face by the second bullet. He slumped forward into Mrs. Kennedy’s lap, and uh, it was apparent to me that we were being fired upon. I went ahead of the President’s car to inform Chief Curry that the President had been hit. And then he instructed us over the air to take him to Parkland Hospital and he had Parkland Hospital stand by. I went on up ahead of the, to notify the officers that were leading the escort that he had been hit and we're gonna have to move out."
Chaney claimed he looked over his left shoulder following the first shot. He also claimed Kennedy looked over his left shoulder following the first shot. As we can see in the Zapruder film, Kennedy doesn’t look to his left between frames 160 and 224. The Altgens photo taken at Zapruder frame 255 shows Chaney looking to his left. Hence, Chaney heard only one shot between frames 160 and 255. He also claimed the second shot was the one which hit Kennedy in the face (by which he certainly meant the head). His observation therefore doesn’t support the first shot miss theory. The Altgens photo is shown below, with Chaney indicated by the circle.

Mary Woodward:
Mary Woodward was a junior reporter from the Dallas Morning news. She was accompanied by three of her co-workers on the day of the assassination. Woodward stood between the freeway signs along Elm Street. Following the assassination, she wrote a newspaper article describing what she observed. Here is the relevant excerpt from her article:
“We had been waiting about half an hour when the first motorcycle escorts came by, followed shortly by the President’s car. The President was looking straight ahead and we were afraid we would not get to see his face. But we started clapping and cheering and both he and Mrs. Kennedy turned, and smiled and waved, directly at us…After acknowledging our cheers, he [JFK] faced forward again and suddenly there was a horrible, ear-splitting noise coming from behind us and a little to the right. My first reaction, and also my friends', was that as a joke someone had backfired their car. Apparently, the driver and occupants of the President's car had the same impression, because instead of speeding up, the car came almost to a halt...I don't believe anyone was hit with the first bullet. The President and Mrs. Kennedy turned and looked around, as if they, too, didn't believe the noise was really coming from a gun...Then after a moment's pause, there was another shot and I saw the President start slumping in the car. This was followed rapidly by another shot.  Mrs. Kennedy stood up in the car, turned halfway around, then fell on top of her husband’s body.”
Woodward makes it perfectly clear that she heard the first shot after Kennedy had turned and waved at her (not before he waved – as per the LPM theory). She is therefore not a witness to the first shot miss theory. It should be noted that she was almost certainly mistaken about hearing the shot after Kennedy waved (as the evidence indicates otherwise). Woodward also makes it clear that it was the cheering by her and her three friends which caused both Kennedy and his wife to turn towards the right. However, Lone gunman kooks want us to believe that it was the sound of the first shot which caused Jackie Kennedy to turn towards the right (further discussion below). Woodward is indicated in a crop of the Altgens’ photo below:

Glen Bennett:
Glen Bennett was the secret service agent sitting in the right rear seat of the Secret service follow-up car. From Bennett’s secret service report written on 23/11/63:
“About thirty minutes after leaving Love Field about 12:25 P.M., the Motorcade entered an intersection and then proceeded down a grade. At this point the well-wishers numbered but a few; the motorcade continued down this grade enroute to the Trade Mart. At this point I heard what sounded like a fire-cracker. I immediately looked from the right/crowd/physical area/and looked towards the President who was seated in the right rear seat of his limousine open convertible. At the moment I looked at the back of the President I heard another fire-cracker noise and saw the shot hit the President about four inches down from the right shoulder. A second shot followed immediately and hit the right rear high of the President's head. I immediately hollered "he's hit" and reached for the AR-15 located on the floor of the rear seat. Special Agent Hickey had already picked-up the AR-15”
Bennett claimed to look towards the President’s car “immediately” following the first shot. However, the photographic evidence doesn’t support Bennett’s recollections. In the Betzner slide(taken circa Zapruder frame 186), Bennett is not looking forward, but is looking to his right. In the Willis slide (taken circa frame 202), Bennett is still looking to his right. In the Altgens’ photo, we can see that Bennett is still looking to his right! So just when exactly did he “immediately” look towards the President’s car? Well, the photographic evidence strongly indicates it was just after Zapruder frame 255.
Bennett also gave no indication of Kennedy’s actions following the first shot. He is therefore not a credible witness for the first shot miss theory. Futhermore, five of his fellow secret service agents (including David Powers), made it clear they saw Kennedy slump/lean after the first shot. I think it’s also important to note, that Bennett’s observation of seeing the shot hit Kennedy’s back “about 4 inches down from the right shoulder” is a blow to the single bullet theory. Below are the photographs which show Bennett. We can also see agent George Hickey looking to his left in the Betzner slide. In the Willis slide we can see that he is now facing forward.

The Betzner slide with Bennett circled (with brightness and contrast slightly adjusted)

The Willis slide with Bennett circled

The head snaps to the right
As stated previously, lone gunman kooks constantly use Governor Connally’s rapid head snap to the right as the best evidence of a shot fired circa frame 160. By my observation, Connally snaps his head to the right circa Zapruder frame 165. First lady Jacqueline Kennedy also begins to turn her head to the right at circa frame 171, and is completely facing President Kennedy by frame 200 (by my observation). Now, Governor Connally did inform both the FBI and the Warren commission that he turned to his right upon hearing the first shot. However, he also claimed the time between the first shot and the one which hit him were fired very close together. Let’s take a look at his FBI interview on 13/12/63:
“Governor Connally stated “First sense or realization of anything unusual I became conscious of a shot or what sounded like a gunshot. I knew it came from my right rear. I instinctively turned to my right to look back and as I did so I sensed more than I saw that President Kennedy was hit. As I turned I realized something was amiss with President Kennedy and then I turned back to my left a little and as I did so I got hit with a bullet in my right shoulder…I believe I remarked “Oh my God, they are going to kill us all!” Realizing I had been hit I crumpled over to Mrs Connally and she pulled me over towards her…I was conscious of a third shot and heard it…we were all splattered with what I thought was brain tissue from President Kennedy.” …When Governor Connally was asked about the elapsed time between the first and last shot he remarked “Fast, my God it was fast. It seemed like a split second. Just that quick” and he snapped his fingers three times rapidly to illustrate the time and said “unbelievably quick…Governor Connally felt the shots were fired so fast the assassin had hit him by accident on the second shot.”
Excerpt from Connally’s Warren commission testimony before Arlen Specter:

Mr. Specter:
As the automobile turned left onto Elm from Houston, what did occur there, Governor?

Governor Connally:
We had--we had gone, I guess, 150 feet, maybe 200 feet, I don't recall how far it was, heading down to get on the freeway, the Stemmons Freeway, to go out to the hall where we were going to have lunch and, as I say, the crowds had begun to thin, and we could--I was anticipating that we were going to be at the hall in approximately 5 minutes from the time we turned on Elm Street. We had just made the turn, well, when I heard what I thought was a shot. I heard this noise which I immediately took to be a rifle shot. I instinctively turned to my right because the sound appeared to come from over my right shoulder, so I turned to look back over my right shoulder, and I saw nothing unusual except just people in the crowd, but I did not catch the President in the corner of my eye, and I was interested, because once I heard the shot in my own mind I identified it as a rifle shot, and I immediately--the only thought that crossed my mind was that this is an assassination attempt. So I looked, failing to see him, I was turning to look back over my left shoulder into the back seat, but I never got that far in my turn. I got about in the position I am in now facing you, looking a little bit to the left of center, and then I felt like someone had hit me in the back.

Mr. Specter:
What is the best estimate that you have as to the time span between the sound of the first shot and the feeling of someone hitting you in the back which you just described?

Governor Connally:
 A very, very brief span of time. Again my trend of thought just happened to be, I suppose along this line, I immediately thought that this--that I had been shot. I knew it when I just looked down and I was covered with blood, and the thought immediately passed through my mind that there were either two or three people involved or more in this or someone was shooting with an automatic rifle. These were just thoughts that went through my mind because of the rapidity of these two, of the first shot plus the blow that I took, and I knew I had been hit, and I immediately assumed, because of the amount of blood, and in fact, that it had obviously passed through my chest that I had probably been fatally hit. So I merely doubled up, and then turned to my right again and began to--I just sat there, and Mrs. Connally pulled me over to her lap. She was sitting, of course, on the jump seat, so I reclined with my head in her lap, conscious all the time, and with my eyes open; and then, of course, the third shot sounded, and I heard the shot very clearly. I heard it hit him. I heard the shot hit something, and I assumed again--it never entered my mind that it ever hit anybody but the President. I heard it hit. It was a very loud noise, just that audible, very clear. “
As we can see, Governor Connally informed both the FBI and the Warren commission that the time between the first shot and the one which hit him was very brief. In fact according to Connally, it was so brief that he initially believed somebody was shooting with an automatic rifle! He also claimed the Limousine travelled between 150 and 200 feet (further down Elm Street than the position at frame 160). His recollections are therefore more in line with a shot fired between frames 178 and 190 (as per the witnesses who observed Kennedy waving). Of course, there is every reason to believe his memory could’ve been badly affected by his injuries. However, couldn’t the same be said of his recollection of turning to the right following the first shot? Of course it could.
In fact, during an interview with life magazine in 1966, Connally was shown frames of the Zapruder film, where he was asked to give his opinion of when he was hit. Connally had ultimately decided on frame 234. However, the most telling part of the interview was when he made the statement he turned to his right when the limousine was behind the sign. From Pat Speer’s website:
"You can see my leftward movement clearly...I had turned to the right when the limousine was behind the sign. Now I'm turning back again. I know that I made that turn to the left before I was hit. You can see the grimace in the President's face. You cannot see it in mine. There is no question about it. I haven't been hit yet."
So there you have it folks. Despite the claims by lone gunman kooks, Connally himself claimed to turn to his right when the limousine was behind the sign. Clearly, the limousine was not behind the sign at frame 160. We can see the limousine disappear completely behind the sign at circa frame 200, and we see Governor Connally emerge at circa frame 223. Let me just state for the record, that unlike many conspiracy theorists, I do believe Connally was struck by a bullet at frame 224! However, I don’t believe in the single bullet theory (I will discuss my beliefs on these matters in a future post). Let’s bear in mind that Connally’s claim of turning to his right as the limousine was behind the sign, is perfectly consistent with his earlier claims of the time span between the shots being very brief. It is also consistent with his claim that the limousine could have travelled between 150 to 200 feet along Elm Street, before the first shot was fired.
Still, despite Connally’s own claim of when he turned to his right, lone gunman kooks will argue that Connally’s head snap (circa frame 165) is “proof” of a missed shot. I think an explanation for this reaction is certainly warranted. So what was the cause of it? To answer that question, let’s go back to the article by reporter Mary Woodward.
“We had been waiting about half an hour when the first motorcycle escorts came by, followed shortly by the President’s car. The President was looking straight ahead and we were afraid we would not get to see his face. But we started clapping and cheering and both he and Mrs. Kennedy turned, and smiled and waved, directly at us…After acknowledging our cheers, he [JFK] faced forward again and suddenly there was a horrible, ear-splitting noise coming from behind us and a little to the right.”
So there it is. Woodward claimed that both Kennedy and his wife, turned towards them as they started to clap and cheer. Now wouldn’t Governor Connally, who was also watching crowds throughout the motorcade, turn his head quickly from looking to his left (just prior to frame 165) upon hearing the clapping and cheering? Of course he would. After all, isn’t that precisely the sort of reaction we would expect from anybody hearing cheering? I sure believe that to be the case.
Now, Woodward herself never claimed that Connally had turned towards her. This is understandable however, considering she was paying attention to the President and his wife, and not Connally. Supporting Woodward’s observation, there is the testimony of TSBD employee, Victoria Adams. Here is the relevant excerpt of her testimony before David Belin:
Mr. Belin :
Will you state what you saw, what you did, and what you heard?

Miss Adams:
I watched the motorcade come down Main, as it turned from Main onto Houston, and watched it proceed around the corner on Elm, and apparently somebody in the crowd called to the late President, because he and his wife both turned abruptly and faced the building, so we had a very good view of both of them.

Mr. Belin:
Where was their car as you got this good view, had it come directly opposite your window? Had it come to that point on Elm, or not, if you can remember

Miss Adams:
I believe it was prior, just a second or so prior to that.

Mr. Belin:
All right.

Miss Adams:
And from our vantage point we were able to see what the President's wife was wearing, the roses in the car, and things that would attract men's attention. Then we heard---then we were obstructed from the view.

Mr. Belin:
By what?

Miss Adams:
A tree and we heard a shot, and it was a pause, and then a second shot, and then a third shot.
As was the case with Mary Woodward, Victoria Adams made it clear that both the President and the first lady turned to their right before the first shot, not after. I honestly don’t know how much clearer it could be. When we also take into account the witnesses who observed Kennedy waving as the first shot was fired, along with Connally’s claim of turning to his right as the limousine was behind the sign, it’s obvious the first shot was fired between Zapruder frames 178 and 190. As I also previously stated, it makes little or no sense that President Kennedy would hear a loud noise such as a gunshot, and continue to smile and wave.

Secret service agents John Ready and Paul Landis
Apart from the reactions of President Kennedy, Mrs Kennedy, and Governor Connally, there are also the reactions of secret service agents John Ready, and Paul Landis, who were standing on the right running board of the secret service follow-up car. Stephen Barber wrote an article entitled “a close examination of the Zapruder film”, which is posted on the website of lone gunman kook, John McAdams. In the article, Barber discusses the reactions of the two agents as follows:
“An examination of the two Secret Service agents John Ready and Paul Landis, riding on the right running board of the Secret Service car, we can see that both men are looking to their immediate left. At approximately frame 169, agent Ready quickly turns his head to the right front, and appears to be scanning the area. Agent Landis follows with the same reaction.”
Barber evidently believes the two agents were reacting to a gunshot. However, wouldn’t the sudden cheering of Mary Woodward and her three friends also have attracted the attention of these two agents? Of course it would. What Barber doesn’t note, are the reactions of the Ready and Landis which follow. At approximately Zapruder frame 200, agent ready drops his right arm, and begins to turn around. In the Altgens’ photo we can see that he is looking to his rear. According to Ready’s secret service report, he turned around immediately following the first shot. Here is the relevant excerpt:
“The shooting occurred as we were approaching the Thornton Freeway, traveling about 20-25 miles per hour in a slight incline. There appeared to be no spectators on the right side of the road-way. After the initial shot I attempted to locate the area from where they had come from but was not able to. It appeared that the shots came from my right-rear side.”
It’s important to note, that Ready begins to turn around just as George Hickey rapidly turns his head from looking to the left, to looking straight ahead! His reaction is therefore more supportive of a shot between frames 178 and 190. How about agent Landis? According to his secret service report, he also turned to his rear following the first shot. We can also see him looking to his rear in the Altgens’ photo. Here is the relevant excerpt from his secret service report:
“The President's car and the Follow-up car had just completed their turns and both were straightening out. At this moment I heard what sounded like the report of a high-powered rifle from behind me, over my right shoulder. When I heard the sound there was no question in my mind what it was. My first glance was at the President, as I was practically looking in his direction anyway. I saw him moving in a manner which I thought was to look in the direction of the sound. I did not realize that President Kennedy had been shot at this point. I immediately returned my gaze, over my right shoulder, toward the modernistic building I had observed before.”
As can be seen in the Zapruder film, Landis doesn't turn to his rear, until he is no longer in the field of view of Zapruder’s camera (which is after frame 200). His claim of immediately looking back towards the TSBD is therefore more in line with a shot between frames 178 and 190.

The smoking gun:
There is perhaps no better evidence for a shot between Zapruder frames 178 and 190, than President Kennedy’s own reactions. At frame 190, he has suddenly stopped waving to his right. Now what could have caused this reaction? The most logical answer is the sound of the first shot. At frame 200, he begins to turn his head away from the crowd and to his left. By frame 214 (0.77 seconds later with Zapruder camera at 18.3 frames per second), he is completely facing forward. As he turns his head, he also glides his right hand across his face, and appears to already be struck by a bullet.
Whilst lone gunman kooks naturally scoff at conspiracy theorists for believing Kennedy had already been hit, the HSCA’s photographic panel came to the conclusion that President Kennedy appeared to be showing a reaction to an external stimulus at this point in time. Excerpt from Volume 6 of the HSCA:
“The Zapruder film was studied with care at each of the Panel's conferences. At the final conference, which took place in July 1978, the film was closely scrutinized by 20 photographic scientists who were either members of the Panel or contractors responsible for much of the committee's laboratory work (i.e. photographic enhancement, restoration, etc.).
By a vote of 12 to 5, the Panel determined that President Kennedy first showed a reaction to some severe external stimulus by Zapruder frame 207, as he is seen going behind a sign that obstructed Zapruder's view.
At approximately Zapruder frame 200, Kennedy's movements suddenly freeze; his right hand abruptly stops in the midst of a waving motion and his head moves rapidly from right to his left in the direction of his wife. Based on these movements, it appears that by the time the President goes behind the sign at frame 207 he is evidencing some kind of reaction to a severe external stimulus.”
Just as President Kennedy begins to emerge from behind the Stemmons freeway sign In Zapruder frame 223; we can see that his left arm is already elevated. In frame 224 (just as Governor Connally is hit), we can that President Kennedy already has a look of pain on his face. There is very little doubt in my mind that President Kennedy had already been hit, prior to the “single bullet” shot at frame 224. I will hopefully discuss this further in a future post.

In conclusion, agent George Hickey’s rapid head snap beginning circa frame 193, agent John Ready’s dropping his arm turning around circa frame 200, Governor Connally’s claim of turning around as the limousine was behind the Stemmons freeway sign, and the witnesses who claimed JFK was waving as the first shot was fired, all place the first shot closer to frame 190 of the Zapruder film. We also have the statements by Mary Woodward and Victoria Adams, and the actions of President Kennedy himself who suddenly stopped waving at circa frame 190, and then rapidly turned his head to the front. Let’ also take into account the reaction of Rosemary Willis (the little girl seen running in the Zapruder film), who testified before the HSCA that she began to slow down just as she heard the first shot. In the Zapruder film, she can be seen slowing down circa frame 190!

Let me note, there are a couple of contradictions. Mr’s Kennedy testified before the Warren commission that she was looking to her left as the first shot was fired. However, it’s quite possible that the trauma of seeing her husband murdered before her eyes, had badly affected her memory. Phil Willis also claimed that Mr’s Kennedy’s turned her head to the right, following the first shot. This implies the first shot was fired prior to frame 171 - when Mr’s Kennedy begins to turn her head. However, his words are open to interpretation.

Friday, 24 August 2012

First shot disinformation - Part 1

In my previous post entitled, misrepresenting the shooting sequence, I spent a considerable amount of time discussing the dishonesty of lone gunman theorists, concerning the ear witnesses to the assassination. I also discussed how they deliberately cherry pick the statements of witnesses, such as Harold Norman, but ignore the rest of their statements, and deliberately omit the recollections of other important witnesses such as Bonnie Ray Williams, and James Earl Jarman. In this post, I will specifically address the disinformation concerning the first shot I have come across on websites upholding the lone gunman myth.
Let’s bear in mind that the FBI’s lab tests on “Oswald’s” Mannlicher Carcano rifle, determined a minimum of 2.3 seconds was required to work the bolt of the rifle - to eject and then load another round into the firing chamber. Let’s also bear in mind that the speed of the Zapruder camera was determined to be 18.3 frames per second. The LPM theory holds the second shot was fired circa frame 224 of the Zapruder film, and struck both President Kennedy and Governor Connally. With the speed of the Zapruder film at 18.3 fps, the first shot had to be fired at least prior to frame 182 - in order for one gunman to have accomplished the feat on his own. The LPM theory of course holds that the first shot was fired at circa Zapruder frame 160.
(Please note: There is some debate amongst researchers as to whether or not the speed of the Zapruder camera was actually 16 frames per second. If this is correct, then the first shot had to be fired at least prior to frame 187, for the lone gunman theory to be true.)
Dale Myers vs. Max Holland
On his blog site, JFK files, lone gunman kook, Dale Myers, wrote long criticisms of Max Holland’s first shot theory. For those who are unaware, Holland’s theory holds that the first shot was fired before Abraham Zapruder started filming JFK on Elm Street! Myers of course was correct in refuting Holland’s utterly absurd theory. However, what exactly did Myers himself omit and distort? Let’s take a look.
(Please note: I have chosen Myers’ essays, because it’s a good example of dishonesty from the lone gunman crowd, which truly pisses me off.)
Myers explains that the actions of Governor Connally, Nellie Connally, and Jackie Kennedy as seen in the Zapruder film, “proves” the first shot was fired at circa Zapruder frame 160. Myer’s however, omits that both Nellie Connally and Jackie Kennedy claimed to see JFK react to the first shot by grabbing his throat. Pat Speer wrote extensively about the observations and reactions of these three witnesses on his website, and I also discuss Governor Connally in part 2 of my essay.
Like all of his fellow lone gunman kooks, Myers deliberately omits the statements of witnesses who claimed to see JFK waving as the first shot was fired. JFK of course is not waving at frame 160, but is waving between frames 178 and 190. Hence, the observations of these witnesses place the first shot between frames 178 and 190 of the Zapruder film. Witnesses who claimed to see JFK waving as the first shot was fired include Phil Willis, Linda Willis, John Chism, Marvin Faye Chism, Patricia Lawrence, Abraham Zapruder, and Kenneth O’Donnell. There certainly aren’t a lot of witnesses who claimed to see JFK waving as the first shot was fired. However, the important point to bear in mind is that not witness claimed to see JFK wave after the first shot was fired! Certainly something to keep in mind.
Myers also discusses the observations of Bonnie Ray Williams (who was viewing the motorcade from the 5th floor of the TSBD). Myers explains that the last thing William’s saw JFK do before the first shot, was to brush his hair back (which JFK can be seen doing at circa frame 140). He omits however, that Williams claimed in his 1967 interview with CBS that he saw JFK slump after the first shot (yet JFK slumps after the “single bullet” shot at circa frame 224). It’s also important note that Myers omits Williams’ statements to both the Dallas Sheriff’s office and the FBI, where he claimed to hear only TWO shots fired above him. Gee, kind of important isn’t it Dale? But hey, when you’re a diehard Warren commission zealot, who cares if Williams heard only TWO shots, right?
Myers also explains that Harold Norman told the Warren commission he also saw President Kennedy brush his hair back prior to the first shot. What he omits however is that Norman informed the Warren commission he observed the President “slump or something” after the first shot.I think that’s important information to include, wouldn’t you say?
Then we have the recollections of three secret service agents: Samuel Kinney, George Hickey, and Paul Landis. Myers writes: “Holland and Rush also cited the equally vague testimony of three Secret Service agents as supportive of their theory” What a crock! All three agents observed JFK react to the first shot by leaning/slumping to his left (which only occurs after Zapruder frame 224). Here are excerpts from their secret service reports:
Samuel Kinney (22/11/63):
“I was driving SS 679-X, follow-up. As we turned off Main Street (left) about 4 minutes from our destination of Trade Mart. The first shot was fired as we were going into an underpass. The first shot was fired, I glanced from the taillight of SS 100-X, at the President and it appeared that he had been shot because he slumped to the left. Immediately he sat up again.* At this time the second shot was fired and I observed hair flying from the right side of his head”
Paul Landis (27/11/63):
“At approximately this point, I would say, the President's car and the Follow-up car had just completed their turns and both were straightening out. At this moment I heard what sounded like the report of a high-powered rifle from behind me, over my right shoulder. When I heard the sound there was no question in my mind what it was. My first glance was at the President, as I was practically looking in his direction anyway. I saw him moving in a manner which I thought was to look in the direction of the sound. I did not realize that President Kennedy had been shot at this point.I glanced towards the President and he still appeared to be fairly upright in his seat, leaning slightly toward Mrs. Kennedy with his head tilted slightly back. I think Mrs. Kennedy had her right arm around the President's shoulders at this time.”
George Hickey (22/11/63):
“Just prior to the shooting the Presidential car turned left at the intersection and started down an incline toward an underpass followed by 679X. After a very short distance I heard a loud report which sounded like a firecracker. It appeared to come from the right and rear and seemed to me to be at ground level. I stood up and looked to my right and rear in an attempt to identify it. Nothing caught my attention except people shouting and cheering. A disturbance in 679X caused me to look forward toward the President's car. Perhaps 2 or 3 seconds elapsed from the time I looked to the rear and then looked at the President. He was slumped forward and to his left, and was straightening up to an almost erect sitting position as I turned and looked. At the moment he was almost sitting erect I heard two reports which I thought were shots and that appeared to me completely different in sound than the first report and were in such rapid succession that there seemed to be practically no time element between them.”
Despite Myers BS claims, the three agents in question made it perfectly clear they observed President Kennedy react to the first shot (not the second shot), by leaning or slumping to his left. Both Landis and Hickey (along with agent John Ready) can be seen in the famous Altgens’ photograph taken circa Zapruder frame 255 looking to their rear. Myers further states: “None of these reports aid us in determining the exact moment of the first shot either”. Whilst that is true with regard to their statements, Hickey’s rapid head snap between Zapruder frames 193 and 202, helps us place the first shot closer to frame 190 than 160. Although lone gunman zealots love to use Governor Connally’s rapid head snap (circa frame 165) to support their first shot miss theory; they completely disregard Hickey’s rapid head snap. The arrows in Zapruder frames 193 and 202 below point to Hickey.

As we can see, in frame 193, Hickey is still looking to his left. However, by frame 202, he is now facing forward. With the speed of the Zapruder camera at 18.3 fps, the speed of Hickey’s head snap was roughly 0.5 seconds! Now, although Hickey never claimed to have turned from looking to his left upon hearing the first shot, what other possible explanation could there be for his reaction? Bear in mind that Hickey’s reaction is perfectly consistent with the statements of the witnesses who claimed to see President Kennedy waving as the first shot was fired. It is also consistent with the Zapruder camera jiggle and blurring which begins circa frame 188 (by my observation). Myers actually believes Hickey’s reaction supports the mythical shot at frame 160. He can only claim that by ignoring the statements of the aforementioned witnesses to JFK’s wave.

I will discuss the timing of the first shot in more detail in part 2. Also, be sure to check out Pat Speer’s website concerning the timing of the first shot. Speer ultimately concludes the first shot was fired Circa Zapruder frame 188. Speer also does an excellent job of exposing how Vincent Bugliosi cherry picked ear witness statements to support the mythical shot at frame 160. See here.
James Tague
James Tague is undoubtedly one of the most important witnesses to the assassination of President Kennedy. For those who are unaware, Tague was standing near the curb on main and commerce streets when the shooting occurred. Tague was injured when a bullet or a fragment of a bullet struck the curb and dislodged a piece of concrete, which nicked his left cheek.

According to the LPM theory, the first shot was the one that missed. The bullet allegedly struck a branch of the large oak tree in front of the TSBD, magically deflected upwards, and then struck the pavement near the manhole cover, sending a fragment of a bullet towards Tague. However, what the lone gunman kooks who are peddling this garbage don’t tell you is that Tague never claimed to be injured following the first shot! Here’s Tague’s interview with the Dallas times Herald (6/5/1964):
"There was that first shot, then the second and the third.  Some time, I think it was the second shot, a bullet--I'm sure it was a bullet--hit the curb in front of me and I felt a sting on my cheek."
Tague claimed in his interview that he was injured following the second shot, not the first shot. When asked by Warren Commission counsel, Wesley Liebeler which shot had hit him, Tague responded:
Maybe the second or third shot, I couldn’t tell you definitely – I made no connection. I looked around wondering what was going on, and I recall this.”
Liebeler also asked Tague if he heard any shots after he had been hit. Tague responded:
“I believe I did…. I believe that it was the second shot, so I heard the third shot afterwards.”
In 1968, Tague published his personnel account of the assassination in the National Enquirer. Here is the relevant excerpt:
 “There was a loud report, a sharp sudden crackle of sound that seemed to linger in the air. A gunshot, I thought, but not necessarily from a rifle. It passed fleetingly in my mind that perhaps there was some disturbance in the crowd and an eager-beaver officer had fired a warning shot in the air. But the sound didn't seem exactly right for that. There had to be some other explanation. My gaze swept over the rows of faces on the distant curb. Then it darted on to the grassy slope, taking in the masonry which had spectators perching on it or leaning against it. Restlessly, I moved a step or two. One foot struck the metallic cover of a sewer manhole. Then there was a second blast, louder and even more distinct, as if from closer range. At that instant I was facing the gazebo. My attention was so caught up that I was only dimly aware of a stinging sensation in my right cheek. Then a third report followed quickly, not waiting--as the second one had--until the previous one died away.”
In 2003, Tague published his book, Truth withheld, where he confirmed that he was injured following the second shot. Below is the relevant excerpt:
“I stood there wondering what was going on when a limousine emerged from this crowd and headed down Elm Street toward where I was standing… My thoughts were quickly broken by the pop of a firecracker and I recall thinking “What kind of idiot would be setting off a firecracker with the President driving by?”…That thought was soon interrupted by the crack of a high-powered rifle shot, and then almost immediately the crack of a second high-powered rifle shot.  It was then that something stung me in the face…One thing that I have always been positive of is that the first shot was not the shot that hit the curb near me…The first shot sounded like a firecracker.”
In 1992, Tague was interviewed by lone gunman kook, Gerald Posner. According to Posner, Tague claimed he didn’t know which shot had caused his injury. However, in an article written by William Goggins (available on John McAdams website), Tague claimed Posner had misquoted him.
Max Holland also used Tague as a witness for his utterly absurd first shot miss theory. Following the TV airing of Holland’s show, JFK: the lost bullet, Tague wrote an email where he forcefully asserted the following:
"Holland is full of crap. One thing I know for sure is that the first shot was not the missed curb shot. Another thing I am positive about is that the last shot was the missed shot. You may not want to believe the Warren Commission’s final findings, but you can believe the 11 witnesses who state it was the last shot that missed”.
As we can see, Tague was consistent in maintaining the second shot was the one he had associated with his injury. Tague was also adamant that the first shot was not the missed shot! So where did lone gunman theorists get the idea that it was the first shot which nicked the curb. Well, I would say from their rear ends. Frankly, the arrogance and dishonesty of these disinformation artists simply astonishes me. Did they really think they could get away with this crap they’re peddling? Apparently so.
Tague’s recollections are also a blow to the pet theory that President Kennedy was struck by the first non-silenced shot, and Governor Connally was struck by the second non-silenced shot. Now, Tague did believe at times that the third shot was the missed shot. However, this is understandable, when we take into account the fact that like the majority of assassination witnesses, Tague heard the second two shots fired very close together. So naturally there would have been some confusion in his mind as to which of the second two shots was the one which caused his injury. However, he was more consistent in believing the second shot was the one which caused his injury.
So what did cause the damage to the curb? In my opinion, it was a fragment of the bullet which struck President Kennedy’s head from behind. This theory was first postulated by Josiah Thompson in his book, Six seconds in Dallas, and is supported by Warren commission zealots, Larry Sturdivan and Ken Rahn. Also, Pat Speer has made a very convincing argument that the fatal shot to JFK was a tangential wound which struck the top right portion of his head. Lone gunman and conspiracy advocates alike, have used the argument that President Kennedy’s head first moves forward between frames 312 and 313, as proof of a shot to the head from behind. However, as Speer has noted, if you look closely at the frames, Kennedy’s head actually moves downwards (indicating the bullet hit the top of the head!).
A tangential strike to the top of the head would also explain how the bullet sheared apart, and also explains how a fragment would deflect upwards towards the Tague curb, right? For more information on the head wound, be sure to check out Speer’s website. For photographs of the broken bullet, check out JFK Lancer here.
Let’s also bear in mind, that several witnesses such as motorcycle officers James Chaney and Bobby Hargis, SS agents Paul Landis and Clint Hill, Charles Brehm, Abraham Zapruder, Marilyn Sitzman, James Altgens, Bill Newman, and James Earl Jarman, indicated the second shot was the head shot. Now is that Just a coincidence? Also, as I explained in the previous post, other witnesses described the third shot as the head shot. This is understandable when we take into account the fact that these witnesses heard the last two shots fired very close together.
Let me finish by saying that the notion a bullet fragment could travel several hundred feet in mid-air before striking the curb - with sufficient energy to dslodge a piece of concrete, is one of the most ridiculous ideas I have heard concerning the assassination. Bear in mind that no damage to the Oak tree was ever identified. Also, just think how ridiculous it is that a bullet could strike a loose tree branch with such force that it would actually deflect upwards - without leaving a trace of damage on the tree. Truly ridiculous!

Tuesday, 21 August 2012

Was Lee Harvey Oswald a complete moron?

When one considers Lee Harvey Oswald’s alleged actions and the aftermath of his arrest, following the assassination of the President, it begs the question: Was Oswald a complete moron? Just consider the following:
What kind of a moron allegedly shoots the President of the United states from a window in front of the TSBD (without using a silencer), and then walks straight out the front door where he can be recognised? Let’s bear in mind the Warren commission determined Oswald left the TSBD just 3 minutes after allegedly shooting the President. Surely Oswald would have known that witnesses, such as Howard Brennan, could have pointed him out to the police as he exited the building. Now if Oswald was innocent (as I am 100% convinced he was), he naturally wouldn’t hesitate to walk out the front door, right? Unless of course, he was a complete moron.
Another question is this: what kind of a moron stops to buy a bottle of coke instead of trying to get the hell out of building through the back door after shooting the President. Now, Oswald could have gone to the second floor lunchroom in order to establish himself an alibi. However, why would have his back turned to the door and be walking away instead of standing directly behind the door and looking through the window to make sure he could be seen? Lone gunman kooks have naturally challenged whether or not Oswald actually had a coke when he was allegedly confronted by Officer Marion Baker, since his buying the coke from the soda machine adds to the problem of him getting from the 6th floor to the 2nd floor lunchroom on time. In my opinion, it is far more conceivable that Oswald would get the hell out of the TSBD almost immediately after the assassination, instead of waiting for the cops to seal off the building (if he actually was the assassin).
(Please note:  I said alleged encounter with Baker, because in his first day affidavit, Baker claims to have encountered a man walking away from the stairwell on the 3rd or 4th floor! There is also no mention of the lunchroom, and the description of the man he encountered does not match Oswald! Be sure to check out the work by ace researcher, Greg Parker here, or see this thread by ace researcher, Lee Farley, on John Simkin’s education forum.)
There are also the so-called backyard photographs of “Oswald” holding the Mannlicher Carcano and revolver, he allegedly owned and used to shoot the President and officer JD Tippit. Just what kind of a moron doesn’t destroy incriminating photographs which would be used against him? As is the case with the majority of researchers, I have come to believe the photos are fakes. Arguments have been put forth concerning the appearance of the chin, and the same photo of the head being pasted into the photos, with the facial expressions altered by an airbrush etc. Let’s also bear in mind that neither the dark shirt nor pants the “Oswald” figure is wearing, was ever found amongst his belongings (Robert Oswald claimed the shirt was not the style LHO wore). The watch worn by the “Oswald” figure (seen in Ce 133- B) was also never found amongst Oswald’s belongings. The imperial reflex camera allegedly used by Marina Oswald to take the photos was not discovered on the 23rd of November like the photos, but was “discovered” by Ruth Paine on the 8th of December and given to Robert Oswald.
However, what I find especially intriguing is the fact the De Mohrenschildt copy of the Ce 133- A photo is a much clearer copy of the Ce 133- A photo found in the home of Ruth Paine (who very conveniently turned up a lot of evidence against Oswald). Also, unlike the copy found in the Paine household, the De Mohrenschildt copy didn’t contain the markings of the imperial reflex camera! What this proves to me is that someone pasted Oswald’s face onto the original photos, and then used the Imperial reflex camera to take photos of the altered images in order to incriminate Oswald. Let’s also take into account the extraordinary work done by researchers such as John Armstrong and Gil Jesus - proving Oswald didn’t have possession of the rifle. Gil’s website (here) is an absolute must see for all those interested in the truth (this naturally excludes lone gunman kooks).
So what about the alleged money orders for the rifle and revolver? What kind of a moron uses an alias to order the weapons (obviously so they can’t be traced back to him), but puts his actual name on the post office box, where the weapons would be delivered? Better yet, what kind of moron carries that alias in his wallet on the day he allegedly used the rifle to murder the President? According to lone gunman kooks, such as Dale Myers and David Von Pein, that’s precisely what we have to believe Oswald did.
Most students of the assassination are aware of the allegation by FBI agent, Robert Barrett. For those who aren’t, Barrett claimed a wallet containing ID for both Oswald and “his” alias, Alek J. Hidell, was discovered by the Dallas police officers at the scene of Officer JD Tippit’s murder. The wallet was captured by WFAA cameraman, Ron Reiland (shown below). The footage shows a uniformed police officer (believed to be Sgt Calvin “Bud” Owens) showing a wallet to two plain clothed officers, believed to be Captain George Doughty, and Captain W.R Westbrook.

Former FBI agent, James P. Hosty (who was investigating Oswald’s activities upon his return from the Soviet Union), wrote about Barrett’s account of the Wallet in his book, Assignment Oswald. Barrett informed Hosty that as he arrived at the Tippit murder scene, Captain Westbrook called him over and asked him if he knew who Lee Harvey Oswald and Alek J. Hidell was, to which Barrett responded he didn’t.
Lone gunman kooks have naturally tried to Weasel their way out of Barrett’s claims of the Wallet containing ID for Oswald and Hidell. Arguments have ranged from Barrett having simply misremembered where he was when asked about the IDs, to the Wallet belonging to Tippit. Unfortunately for the kooks, Tippit’s wallet was accounted for by Officer W.R Bardin at the Methodist Hospital, where Tippit’s body was taken. Furthermore, DPD officer Leonard Jez who was also at the Tippit murder scene, told researcher Martha Moyer the wallet contained ID for Oswald.
According to the official story, the Hidell ID was found in Oswald’s wallet by officers as he was being driven down to police headquarters - following his arrest at the Texas theatre. The problem is, not one of the arresting officers mentioned the Hidell ID in their arrest reports! Paul Bentley, the detective who removed Oswald’s wallet from his left pant pocket as he was driven down to police headquarters, was interviewed the following day by WFAA -TV concerning Oswald’s arrest. Bentley mentioned having obtained Oswald’s ID from a public library card, a driver’s licence and credit cards. There was no mention of the Hidell ID! One of the other arresting officers, DPD Sergeant Gerald Hill, was interviewed by reporters on the day of the assassination. He also made no mention of the Hidell ID!
Dallas District Attorney, Henry Wade, was interviewed by reporters on the 22nd. He identified Oswald as “Lee Harvey Oswald”. There was no mention of Hidell! Captain Will Fritz, and chief of Dallas police, Jesse Curry, also made no mention of the Hidell ID in their interviews on the 22nd! Gee, kind of important isn’t it? A man is arrested under suspicion of murdering a policeman, he allegedly has a fake ID on him, yet no one is going to mention it in their interviews? Complete garbage! In fact, the first mention of Hidell was on the 23rd when the money order Oswald purportedly used to buy the rifle using the Hidell Alias was discovered. The implications of the Oswald and Hidell Id’s in the wallet are obvious – Oswald was framed! Researchers have also pointed out that the only time Oswald allegedly used the Hidell alias, was for the weapon orders.
For more information concerning the Tippit murder scene wallet, be sure to read through this highly informative thread on the Spartacus education forum. Researchers Jim DiEugenio and Lee Farley took on warren commission zealot, David Von Pein, and destroyed all of his ridiculous arguments concerning the wallet and the Tippit murder.
The one other issue concerning Oswald’s alleged guilt is this: If Oswald was the lone assassin, then why didn’t he use a silencer? Now, I think we know why the conspirators who were trying to frame Oswald wouldn’t use a silencer. They would want to deliberately draw attention to the 6th floor window of the TSBD, and away from other locations where back-up shooters were located. Wouldn’t they? In his overblown mess of a book, reclaiming history, Vincent Bugliosi argues that he doesn’t believe Oswald was some type of hit man, because a hit man would use a silencer. Ah, but surely he would also use one if he was a lone deranged assassin who didn’t want to draw attention to the window he was firing from. Of course, Oswald may have not been able to purchase a suitable silencer for the Carcano. However, it’s still an issue that should be considered.
In my opinion, none of these alleged actions by Oswald following the assassination are those of a guilty man. Lone gunman theorists use Oswald’s scared appearance as “observed” by Johnny Brewer and his struggle with the police inside the Texas Theatre as “proof” of Oswald’s guilt. Yet incredibly, Brewer’s first affidavit was made on the 6th of December (two weeks following the assassination!). Countless researchers have pointed out the problems with Brewer’s observations, and I don’t attend to address them here. I also don’t wish to address the evidence against Oswald in either the President’s assassination or the Tippit murder here. I will do so in future posts.
Let me just add that conspiracy theorists such as Greg Parker, believe Officer Nick McDonald tried to plant the revolver on Oswald in the theatre, and this is why Oswald assaulted him. I think this is certainly a viable scenario. Let’s bear in mind, there is no actually proof Oswald owned the revolver, or that he purchased the ammo for it! Other researchers have pointed to Gerald Hill’s involvement in the frame up. I will save any further discussion of these matters for a later post.

Sunday, 19 August 2012

The shot near the EOP

Researchers of the JFK assassination are aware of the fact that the three autopsy pathologists, Dr James J. Humes, Dr J. Thornton Boswell, and Dr Pierre Finck, discovered a small 15mm by 6mm bullet entry hole at the base of the President’s skull, 2.5cm to the right and slightly above the EOP (the bump at the middle of the base of the skull). Lone gunman kooks have been arguing that somehow all three of the autopsy doctors were gravely mistaken about the location of the entry wound. The argument by these kooks is that the wound was actually at the top of the skull (in the cowlick region), but somehow all three autopsy doctors mistook the base of the President’s skull for the cowlick!
In my opinion, nothing demonstrates the desperation of these kooks to preserve the lone gunman myth, more than their denial of the low entry wound to the skull. The notion that somehow three grown men, who were doctors, somehow mislocated the entry wound is one of the silliest and most idiotic things I have heard concerning President Kennedy’s assassination. But it’s not as if the autopsy doctors were alone in their “mislocation” of this wound. Unfortunately for lone gunman kooks, four other witnesses to the autopsy (John Stringer, Roy Kellerman, Richard Lipsey, and Tom Robinson) also recalled an entry wound to the base of the skull. A big fat ZERO recalled seeing the wound at the cowlick! Here’s the description of the entry wound according to Dr Humes’ report (from JFK Lancer):

                      “Situated in the posterior scalp approximately 2.5 cm. laterally to the
                       right and slightly above the external occipital protuberance is a
                       lacerated wound measuring 15 x 6 mm. In the underlying bone is a
                      corresponding wound through the skull which exhibits beveling of
                      the margins of the bone when viewed from the inner aspect of the

The autopsy face sheet prepared by Doctor Boswell, illustrating and describing the entry wound (the illustration of the entry wound corresponds to the location of the EOP):

Lone gunman theorists are of course not alone in arguing there was no shot near the EOP, as many conspiracy theorists also reject the doctors’ low entry wound. The primary reason for rejecting it is that the autopsy doctors are not to be trusted, since they lied about the location of the back wound. The autopsy photographs have of course proven they lied about the location of the back wound (I can’t for the life of me accept that they were somehow mistaken). Now if the autopsy doctors’ were going to lie about the location of the entry wound to the skull, then why didn’t they claim it was near the top of the skull rather than the base? After all, their placing it near the base would have made it extremely difficult to sell the notion that the bullet entered low then magically deflected upwards in the skull, right? Instead, Humes and Boswell had Harold Rydberg (the Navy medical artist); bend JFK’s head in Ce388 further downwards than shown in Zapruder frame 312.

The red arrow shows the approximate location of the bullet in-shoot to the President’s skull near his EOP (with the approximate angle to the 6th floor sniper’s nest being 16 degrees to the horizontal).
Frame 312 is undoubtedly problematic for the lone gunman myth, since the bullet upon entering the skull would have to magically deflect upwards. As far as I know, the only two people who advocate for a bullet travelling upwards after entering the skull near the EOP, are John Canal and Larry Sturdivan (I of course am not one to trust Sturdivan after his BS goat experiments for the HSCA “proving” the neuro-muscular reaction).
Other “proof” used to denounce the EOP in-shoot, is the absurd notion that the wound cannot be seen in the back of the head autopsy photo. Actually, it can be seen! It’s just a little bit difficult to decipher considering the hair surrounding the wound was partially obscuring it. Below is a copy of the back of the head photo - with a low contrast version. The oval shaped wound described in the autopsy face sheet and report can be seen inside the blue circle in both photos. A copy of Ce386, by Rydberg, depicting the wound shows a stark comparison to what is shown in the back of the head photo. The location shown in Ce386 is undoubtedly not accurate, but let’s remember that Humes and Boswell went to Rydberg with no notes or photos. It’s Just one good example of a cover-up.

Still, diehard Warren commission zealots will argue that what we are seeing in the autopsy photo is nothing but an anomaly. Really? So there just happens to be an anomaly which bears a strong resemblance to what is depicted in Ce386, and it just happens to be low and near the middle of the skull? That’s one hell of a “coincidence” don’t you think?
What about the so-called Cowlick entrance wound? When Josiah Thompson famously depicted Zapruder frame 312 in his highly influential book, six seconds in Dallas, it caused an uproar in Washington. They of course weren’t going to allow even the remote possibility of a conspiracy. Hence, the Clark Panel (name after then attorney general, Ramsay Clark), headed by Dr Russel Fisher was created to “set the record straight”. Well no, it was actually to refute the “junk” in Thompson’s book, as Pat Speer explains in chapter 13 of his website. Based on the photographs and X-rays, they ultimately concluded the autopsy doctors were mistaken about the in-shoot near the EOP. The blue circle in the photo below shows the supposed cowlick in-shoot:

If this is not the real entry wound, then what is it? Well, probably nothing more than a spot of dried blood. Just look around the scalp. There are numerous areas of dried blood, one area just below, and many in front of the alleged Cowlick entry wound. Are they entry wounds too? Well, of course not. It’s only in the imagination of lone gunman zealots. Clearly, the Conspiracy theorists they despise are not the only ones who are delusional.
Not surprisingly, when the HSCA came into being, the medical panel headed by Dr Michael Baden also came to the conclusion that the entry wound was actually in the Cowlick. During his deposition before the panel, Dr Humes did concede to the panel’s conclusion that he was mistaken about the entry wound. However, he did so only after being put under great pressure by the panel. Boswell and Finck on the other hand, never wavered from their belief the wound was near the EOP. During his ARRB testimony, Humes reverted back to the EOP in-shoot.
For more on the EOP in-shoot, and information on the other witnesses who saw a wound near the base of the skull, be sure to check out Pat Speer’s brilliant work on his website. Let me finish off by saying that nothing demonstrates the arrogance and hypocrisy of lone gunman kooks more than their belief the Doctor’s somehow mislocated the entry wound. They constantly tell conspiracy theorists, that we are desperately trying to find any evidence of conspiracy. Yet, by insisting the autopsy doctors’ were mistaken about the location of the in-shoot (which simply defies common-sense), they are the ones who are desperate.
Furthermore, when you take into account Pat Speer’s analysis of the ear witness statements demonstrating the shot to Connally at circa Zapruder frame 224 was from a rifle using a silencer/suppressor, and combine that with the near impossibility of a bullet deflecting upwards in the skull, you have proven a conspiracy behind the assassination.