In order to preserve the myth that three shots (and only three shots), were fired from the 6th floor sniper’s nest of the TSBD, lone gunman kooks constantly misrepresent the shooting sequence. The most commonly accepted lone gunman shooting scenario is a first shot fired at circa Zapruder frame 160, the “single bullet” shot fired circa frame 224, with the head shot as the third and final shot. With the speed of the Zapruder film determined to be 18.3 frames per second, this places the first two shots approximately 3.5 seconds apart, with the last two shots approximately 4.9 seconds part. Researcher Pat Speer has undertaken the most thorough and comprehensive analysis of the ear witness statements to the shooting by any researcher to date. Speer analysed every single statement he could find of the 264 witnesses to the assassination. For his brilliant work, he deserves a great deal of praise. Basically, Speer’s analysis has shown that the above mentioned shooting scenario is nothing but pure bullshit! (Pardon my French). Speer coined this shooting scenario the LPM theory, named after John Lattimer, Gerald Posner, and Dale Myers.
Now according to Speer’s analysis, 68 of the 264 witnesses provided information which was useless in determining how the shooting occurred. Out of the remaining 196, 112 of these witnesses (57%) indicated the last two shots were fired very close together or almost simultaneously (not 4.9 seconds apart!). This is a huge problem for the lone gunman theory, since a minimum of 2.3 seconds was needed to reload another bullet into “Oswald’s” rifle then fire. Pay particular attention to the statements made by witnesses such as Lee Bowers, SS agents George Hickey, Glenn Bennett, William McIntyre, Samuel Kinney, Emory Roberts; Lady Bird Johnson, Mary Woodward, Linda Willis, and witnesses directly beneath the TSBD and along Houston street such as Buell Wesley Frazier, Billy Lovelady, and Dallas deputy Sheriff’s such as Seymour Weitzman, Jack Faulkner and Roger Craig. In fact, Speer has shown that out of the 26 Houston street witnesses whose statements were of any value, 24 claimed to have heard the last two shots fired very close together. Lone gunman theorists have naturally tried to dismiss the closeness of the last two shots as being merely a single shot followed by its echo. However in order to believe this, we have to believe that somehow all these witnesses along elm street missed a shot altogether, and only heard an echo on one of the shots. Completely ridiculous! What’s even more ridiculous, however, is the notion that somehow the Houston street witnesses missed a shot and one of the echoes, yet were consistent with hearing merely the echo of the last shot. Utter horse crap!
Whilst 57% of useful witnesses did indicate the last two shots were fired very close together, it is certainly not an impressive figure. What’s important to note however, is that whilst there were several witnesses who claimed to have heard three evenly spaced shots, such as Dallas morning news photographer Tom Dillard, WFAA reporter Pierce Allman, Senator Ralph Yarborough, and Dallas deputy sheriff Eugene Boone, they were much smaller in number by comparison to those who heard the last two shots very close together. Also, many of these witnesses, such as Boone, contradicted themselves in their subsequent statements. It is also important to note the significance of the many witnesses who claimed to have heard only two shots. Now let’s get real. Why did these witnesses only hear two shots? Was it because there were three evenly spaced shots? Or was it is because the last two shots were fired almost simultaneously? Common sense tells us it is the latter. Witnesses who initially claimed to have heard two shots include Motorcycle officer Bobby Hargis, SS agents Clint Hill and Paul Landis, James Altgens, Abraham Zapruder, Marilyn Sitzman, John and Marvin Faye chism, Marilyn Willis etc.
Speer’s analysis of the eye witnesses who had a clear view of the President as he was shot is of the utmost importance. Speer has shown that several witnesses such as George Hickey, Glenn Bennett, William McIntyre and Linda Willis described hearing the last two shots fired almost simultaneously with the third shot as the head shot. Other witnesses such as motorcycle officer James Chaney, described the second shot as the head shot - with the third shot following almost immediately. Naturally this conflict between eyewitness statements is understandable, considering the last two shots were fired almost simultaneously. However, the most important conclusion reached by Speer’s analysis is that the shot at circa frame 224, which struck Governor Connally, was fired from a rifle using a silencer/suppressor. This was determined by the fact that the majority of the eye witnesses described Kennedy react to the first shot (not the second shot), by either grabbing his throat, leaning/looking to the left, leaning forward; and by the simple fact that most of these witnesses heard only one shot prior to the head shot. These actions of course don’t occur until after frame 224 of the Zapruder film (the alleged firing time of Oswald’s single bullet shot). The best witness for the silenced shot is Governor Connally himself. Connally always maintained that he heard the first shot and the head shot, but could not recall hearing the shot(s) which struck him. Whilst it can be reasonably argued that Connally didn’t hear the shot due to the shock of the bullet passing through his body, this is undermined by the fact that just 5 seconds later - under great pain and shock, he had a vivid memory of hearing the shot strike the President in the head.
Speer also does an excellent job of analysing the statements of Governor Connally (see here). Connally’s rapid head snap at circa frame 165, along with his Warren commission testimony and subsequent interviews have been used as “proof” by lone gunman kooks that the first shot was fired circa Zapruder frame 160. However, what the disinformation artists don’t tell you is that several witnesses observed Kennedy waving as the first shot was fired (check out the statements by Abraham Zapruder, Phil Willis, Linda Willis, John Chism, Marvin Faye Chism, Patricia Lawrence and Kenneth O’Donnell. Also see the statements by Victoria Adams and Mary Woodward). Whilst there certainly isn’t a great number of witnesses who claimed to have seen Kennedy waving as the first shot was fired, the important point to note is that not one witness claimed to have seen Kennedy wave after the first shot was fired! Since Kennedy is waving between frames 178 and 190, these witnesses place the first shot between these frames of the Zapruder film. Now let’s get real, does it make any sense that Kennedy would hear a shot and continue to smile and wave? Well it’s possibly, but not likely. Speer’s conclusion is that the first shot was fired circa frame 188. Click here for the evidence he uses to come to this conclusion.
By far the most crucial aspect of Speer’s analysis, are the statements of Harold Norman, Bonnie Ray Williams, and James Earl Jarman, who were viewing the motorcade from the 5th floor of the TSBD. Nothing shows the blatant dishonesty of lone gunman kooks more than their deliberate cherry picking and omission of statements by these three very important ear witnesses. The one thing you will never ever see any lone gunman kook tell you is that William’s informed both the Dallas Sheriff’s office and the FBI, that he heard TWO shots fired above his head. Yes that’s right, William’s said he only heard TWO shots fired above him – when he should have heard three! William’s did inform the Warren commission that he initially told the authorities he heard two shots, but then came to believe he had heard three, with the last two shots fired close together. Now let’s just ask, why did William’s initially hear only two shots? Was it because there were three well-spaced shots fired from above his head as per the LPM theory? Or was it because there actually were two almost simultaneous shots - with one of them fired from another location? I think any intellectual honest person would answer the latter. William’s observation also confirms what has been determined about Ce543 (the shell with the dented lip), it was not fired during the assassination. The provenance of Ce543 has been discussed in length – most notably by Josiah Thompson and renowned ballistics expert, Howard Donahue (Be sure to check out Michael T. Griffith’s website concerning Ce543).
Let’s now take a look at what the lone gunman kooks don’t want you to know concerning Harold Norman and James Jarman. Both men informed the authorities that they heard a shot, followed by two more shots fired close together. Their statements also indicate the second two shots were closer than the first two shots (completely destroying the LPM theory!). It’s worse than that actually. You see, Norman informed the Warren commission during his testimony that he observed Kennedy slump after the first shot (not the second shot as per the LPM theory). Now Norman did claim in later interviews that he observed Kennedy slump following the second shot, however, his later statements are undermined by his own initial testimony, and the statements by the majority of eye witnesses who described Kennedy’s reactions during the assassination as mentioned above. Norman also went back to his original claim of seeing the President slump after the first shot during his testimony at the mock London trial of Oswald. Norman of course is popular amongst lone gunman theorists for claiming to hear the bolt of the rifle being worked and hearing three shell casings hit the floor above him. However, he did not make this claim in his first interview with the FBI! In fact, he didn’t even indicate whether or not he heard two or three shots. Also, Williams who was standing just a couple of feet from him, failed to corroborate his claim of hearing the bolt and the shells hitting the floor. To see why Norman is not credible in that regard, check out Speer’s analysis and Patricia Lambert’s article.
Now getting back to Jarman’s statements, he described the second shot as the head shot to both the FBI and the Warren commission! This is consistent with the statements by witnesses such as Charles Brehm, James Altgens, Motorcycle officers James Chaney and Bobby Hargis, Abraham Zapruder, Marilyn Sitzman, and SS agents Paul Landis and Clint Hill. As previously stated, he also claimed to hear the third shot fired close behind the second shot. Now unlike Harold Norman he was consistent about his observations, and is therefore much more credible. Make certain you read all of their statements on Speer’s website. The observations of these three witnesses - combined with the statements of the majority of witnesses in Dealey Plaza, make it clear there was a silenced shot at circa frame 224 which struck Governor Connally and one which struck the President near his EOP (which Lone gunman kooks desperately deny). This of course indicates there were two shooters. The rapidness of the last two shots, along with Bonnie Ray Williams hearing only two shots fired above him, indicates there was a third shooter.
Speer ultimately concludes that two shots were fired from the 6th floor snipers nest window of the TSBD using the Mannlicher Carcano (which I agree with), two shots from the upper most floor or roof of the Dal-Tex building, one which hit JFK near his EOP, and one which hit Connally in his armpit and wrist (I agree with this completely, except I believe the shooter was located in the South Eastern most window on the 7th floor). Concerning the first shot, I disagree that it was actually Ce399 which caused the back wound. I believe it was instead a fragment of a bullet that struck the pavement just behind the limousine – narrowly missing motorcycle office James Chaney. Concerning the head shot, I absolutely agree with Speer that it was a tangential wound caused by a MC bullet which struck the President on the top right side of his head. Speer’s most controversial conclusion is his belief that the final non-silenced shot was not actually a shot but rather a diversionary device such as a loud fire cracker, set off behind the picket fence where several witnesses saw a puff of smoke. Although I disagree with him, I nevertheless find this to be rather interesting. I do however; believe this to be a missed shot.
The downside to Speer’s work is that it has refuted Don Thomas’s analysis of the Police Dictabelt recording (as only 18 witnesses could recall hearing 4 or more shots). I also believe both Speer and Dale Myers have shown that Officer HB McLain’s motorcycle was not in the correct positions to record the shots on the Dictabelt. That doesn’t mean however that I have completely rejected the Dictabelt recording (although I had previously stated that it could have been the microphone of motorcycle Officer Douglas Jackson that had captured the sound of the gunshots in Dealey Plaza, I have since changed my opinion. Please see here for why). What I find to be quite coincidental, is the close spacing of what are alleged to be the last two shots (0.7 seconds apart) on the Dictabelt. This is consistent with the statements by ear witnesses who heard the last two shots fired almost simultaneously.
Despite what one might think about Speer’s conclusions regarding the assassination, his work on the ear witness statements is a truly monumental effort. He has shown the LPM theory to be nothing but pure bullshit, and exposed the lies and deceptions of lone gunman kooks. Ultimately only two witnesses (Mr’s Robert Reid and Geneva Hine) were found to reasonably support the LPM theory! I am very disappointed that so few people have actually visited Speer’s website. I also believe Speer is one of the most underacted researchers in the JFK field. I hope that anybody who has taken their time to read this post will also find the time to read through as many of the statements and testimony of the ear witnesses on Speer’s brilliant website.
Bravo Patrick Speer, for all your work!!!